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How to Repair Disk Permissions on Mac: 4 Best Methods

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Last updated: September 6, 2023

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​​In the world of Mac troubleshooting, one recurring issue that users often encounter is disk permission errors. These errors can cause various problems, from slow system performance to application malfunctions.

You can use different methods to repair disk permissions on Mac and restore its optimal functionality. In this guide, I’ve shared the best ways to tackle disk permission issues, providing step-by-step instructions to resolve these problems and get your Mac running smoothly again.

What Are Disk Permissions on Mac?

Disk permissions are an essential aspect of macOS that controls access to files and folders. They determine who can read, write, or execute certain files, ensuring the security and stability of your system. As a result, no unauthorized person or program can access or modify your system files.

Most macOS files are installed as package files, so you often see the .pkg extension at the end of file names. Installing files from package files creates and stores a Bill of Materials file in the package’s receipt file.

You can find the receipt file in /Library/Receipts/ in Mac OS X v10.5 and earlier and identify these files by .bom extension in the file name.

type library receipts in the go t dialog box

These files contain two main pieces of information:

  1. A list of the files installed by that particular package
  2. The permissions assigned to each file

Unlike other file types, these file formats do not occupy significant disk space, so you don’t need to move them to the Bin.

What Can You Do With Disk Permissions on Mac?

Understanding what you can do with disk permissions empowers you to take control of your Mac’s security, privacy, and stability. By managing permissions effectively, you can protect your data, optimize system performance, and ensure a safe computing environment.

Here are a few things you can do with disk permissions on Mac:

  1. 🔒 Access Control: Disk permissions allow you to control which users or groups have permission to view, edit, or execute specific files or folders. This ensures sensitive data remains protected from unauthorized access.
  2. 🛡️ File and Folder Protection: By setting appropriate permissions, you can prevent accidental deletion, modification, or relocation of important files and folders. This helps safeguard critical data from accidental or malicious actions.
  3. 🚀 Security Enhancement: Disk permissions play a crucial role in maintaining the overall security of your Mac. Properly setting permissions can minimize the risk of malware infection and unauthorized access to your system.
  4. 👤 User Privacy: Disk permissions allow you to protect your privacy by restricting access to personal files and folders. By setting permissions appropriately, you can ensure that only authorized individuals can access your private data.
  5. 💪 System Stability: Correct disk permissions help maintain the stability and integrity of your Mac system. When permissions are set correctly, it reduces the likelihood of software conflicts, system crashes, and other performance issues.
  6. 📲 Application Security: Disk permissions play a role in protecting applications on your Mac. They prevent unauthorized access to sensitive application files, reducing the risk of tampering or unauthorized modifications.
  7. 🤝 Collaboration and File Sharing: Disk permissions enable efficient user collaboration and file sharing. By granting appropriate read and write permissions, you can facilitate seamless teamwork and sharing of files and folders.
  8. 🔧 Troubleshooting: Disk permissions can be used as a troubleshooting tool. When encountering issues with specific applications or files, checking and repairing disk permissions can help resolve problems related to access and integrity.
  9. 🧹 Maintenance and Cleanup: Managing disk permissions is essential to regular system maintenance. By periodically reviewing and repairing permissions, you can ensure your Mac continues operating optimally.
  10. 📜 Compliance and Regulatory Requirements: In certain industries or organizations, maintaining proper disk permissions is necessary to comply with specific regulatory requirements and security standards.

How to Identify Disk Permission Issues on Mac

Before we jump into the repair process, it’s essential to identify potential disk permission issues. You can pinpoint the root cause of related problems by recognizing the signs of incorrect permissions.

Here are some common symptoms indicating problems with disk permissions on your Mac:

  1. 🐢 Slow Performance and System Instability: When disk permissions are incorrect, you’ll notice your Mac running slow, and its performance can suffer. You may experience sluggishness, frequent freezes, or even system crashes.
  2. 🚫 Apps Crashing or Not Launching: Incorrect permissions can prevent applications from accessing the necessary files and resources to function properly. As a result, apps may crash immediately upon launch or fail to open at all. This indicates permission restrictions impeding the normal operation of your applications.
  3. 🔒 Inability to Access Certain Files or Folders: If you encounter “access denied” errors or find yourself unable to open specific files or folders, permission restrictions are likely at play. Mac’s security measures may restrict access to files or folders with incorrect permissions, preventing you from accessing or modifying them.

How to Repair Disk Permissions on Mac

If you’re experiencing issues with your Mac’s performance or encountering errors related to file access, repairing disk permissions can be helpful. Disk permissions govern the access and modification rights of various Mac files.

Below, I’ll walk you through different methods for repairing disk permissions on your Mac, ensuring system files are properly secured, and allowing for smoother operation.

Repairing disk permissions is different on newer software, like macOS El Capitan, Big Sur, and Monterey, than older macOS versions.

Before you proceed, make sure to back up your important files and data on Mac to an external hard drive, cloud storage, or Time Machine.

1. Using Disk Utility (macOS 10.11 El Capitan or later)

Disk Utility is a powerful built-in utility that can help verify and repair disk permissions on your Mac. Follow these steps to use Disk Utility to repair disk permissions on Mac:

  1. Launch Disk Utility by going to Finder > Applications > Utilities > Disk Utility. Alternatively, you can search for it in Spotlight (Command ⌘ + Space) by typing Disk Utility.
type disk utility in spotlight search
  1. Select the disk you suspect has permission issues from the list on the left side of the Disk Utility window.
select the disk with permission issues
  1. Click the First Aid button in the top toolbar.
click the first aid button in the top toolbar
  1. Click the Run button to initiate the permission verification and repair process.
click run on the dialog box
  1. Tap Continue to confirm your decision.
tap continue to confirm your decision
  1. Disk Utility will scan your disk for errors and repair any permissions it finds.

The process may take some time, depending on the size of your disk and the number of permissions to be repaired.

2. Using Disk Utility in Recovery Mode (macOS El Capitan or later)

If you’re experiencing issues with Disk Utility, you can always access it via Recovery Mode. This powerful feature, available in macOS El Capitan and later versions, allows you to diagnose and repair disk-related problems directly from a special recovery environment.

Here’s how to use Disk Utility in Recovery Mode on Mac:

  1. Start or restart your Mac and immediately hold down the Command ⌘ + R keys until you see the Apple logo or a spinning globe. This will boot your Mac into Recovery Mode.
macbook air command r keys
  1. After the macOS Utilities window appears, select Disk Utility and click the Continue button.
select disk utility from macos recovery screen
  1. In the Disk Utility window, you will see a list of available disks and volumes on the left-hand side. Select the disk or volume you want to work with from the list.
disk container volumes in disk utility
  1. Select the disk and click the First Aid button in the toolbar.
select startup disk and click first aid
  1. Next, click Run to start the verification and repair process.
click run on the first aid prompt 1
  1. Wait for First Aid to complete, and click Done.
  2. After repairing all of the disks on your Mac, go to Apple > Restart from the menu bar and restart your Mac.
click the apple icon and select restart
  1. Once the process finishes, you’ll get a comprehensive report detailing what the First Aid process did. This report will provide information on any identified problems or issues.
  2. After you have performed the necessary operations in Disk Utility, you can quit Disk Utility and choose an option from the macOS Utilities window, such as reinstalling macOS, restoring from a Time Machine backup, or restarting your Mac normally.

Remember to exercise caution when using Disk Utility, especially when erasing or partitioning disks, as these operations can result in data loss if not performed correctly.

3. Using Terminal (macOS Big Sur, Monterey, or later)

In some cases, Disk Utility may be unable to repair all the disk permissions. In such situations, manual repair via Terminal can be a viable alternative. Follow these steps to repair disk permissions on Mac using Terminal:

  1. Open the Terminal application. You can find it in Finder > Applications > Utilities or search for it using Spotlight (Command ⌘ + Space).
type terminal in spotlight search
  1. Type the following command and Enter:
sudo diskutil resetUserPermissions / 'id -u'
type the sudo diskutil resetUserPermissions command in terminal
  1. Enter your admin password if prompted.
type your password in terminal
  1. If you get the Error -69841, enter these two commands:
chflags -R nouchg
sudo diskutil resetUserPermissions / 'id -u'
  1. Once the repair process is complete, restart your Mac and check if the issues have been resolved.

Manual repair of disk permissions requires careful execution. Be sure to enter the commands correctly, as any mistakes can have unintended consequences.

4. Using Terminal in Recovery Mode (macOS Big Sur, Monterey, or later)

When troubleshooting or performing advanced tasks on a Mac running macOS Big Sur, Monterey, or later versions, accessing Recovery Mode can be immensely helpful. Within this recovery environment, you can access powerful tools, including the Terminal, which allows for direct command-line interaction.

Using the Terminal in Recovery Mode, you can execute various commands to diagnose issues, repair disk permissions, recover data, and carry out various system-level operations. Follow these steps to repair disk permissions on Mac using Terminal in Recovery Mode:

  1. Initiate Recovery Mode on your Mac by clicking the Apple logo and selecting Restart. While your Mac restarts, press and hold the Command ⌘ + R keys until the Apple logo appears.
macbook air command r keys
  1. In the Recovery Mode window, navigate to Finder, then go to Applications > Utilities > Terminal.
launch terminal from utilities
  1. Once the Terminal is open, type in the following command and press Enter:
type the repairHomePermissions command in terminal
  1. If prompted, provide your user account details.
  2. Alternatively, if no prompt appears, you can close the Terminal and click Reinstall macOS in the main window of Recovery Mode.
click reinstall macos in macos utilities

Repair Disk Permissions on Mac

Disk permissions are crucial in maintaining a stable and secure Mac system. By understanding the importance of disk permissions and learning repair methods using tools like Disk Utility or manual repairs via Terminal, you can effectively resolve common problems.

To prevent disk permission issues and maintain a healthy Mac system, consider implementing the following best practices:

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. Can repairing disk permissions solve all Mac performance issues?

    Repairing disk permissions is unlikely to solve all Mac performance issues. While it can help resolve specific issues related to file permissions, overall performance is influenced by various factors like hardware, software, and system settings. It’s recommended to try other troubleshooting steps if problems persist.

  2. What should I do if Disk Utility fails to repair permissions?

    If Disk Utility fails to repair permissions, you can try a few alternative steps. First, reboot your Mac and attempt the repair process again. If the issue persists, you can manually reset permissions using the Terminal application or consider using third-party disk repair software. Additionally, investigate other potential causes of Mac performance issues.

  3. Are there any risks associated with manual disk permission repairs?

    Manual disk permission repairs carry risks, such as accidentally changing critical permissions or disrupting system stability. It’s advisable to exercise caution and have a backup before attempting manual repairs.

  4. Can disk permission repairs cause data loss?

    Disk permission repairs should not cause data loss. However, you must have a backup of your important data before performing disk permission repairs. While rare, there’s a slight possibility of unexpected errors or issues during the repair process that could potentially lead to data loss.

  5. How often should I repair disk permissions on Mac?

    You no longer need to repair disk permissions on Mac in recent versions of macOS. Starting from macOS El Capitan (10.11) and later, Apple introduced a new security framework that handles permissions automatically. However, if you encounter persistent issues, you can perform a permission repair once every few months as part of troubleshooting.

Hashir Ibrahim


I'm Hashir, a tech journalist with a decade of experience. My work has been featured in some of the top tech publications like MakeUseOf and MakeTechEasier. I have a bachelor's degree in IT, a master's in cybersecurity, and extensive knowledge of Apple hardware, specifically MacBooks. As the senior writer at MacBook Journal, I write in depth guides that help you solve any issues you have with your mac and unbiased reviews that help you make the right buying decisions.



Hi there! I'm Ojash, a tech journalist with over a decade of experience in the industry. I've had the privilege of contributing to some of the world's largest tech publications, making my mark as a respected Mac expert. My passion lies in exploring, using, and writing about MacBooks, and I enjoy sharing my expertise to help others make informed decisions and get the most out of their MacBook experience. Join me as we delve into the fascinating world of MacBooks together!

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